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以下は、「J. C. HEPBURN(著). A JAPANESE-ENGLISH AND ENGLISH-JAPANESE DICTIONARY(改正増補和英英和語林集成). TOKYO, Z. P MARUYA & Co. LIMITED(丸善商社)(発行), 1886年. (en)」からの引用です。最後の「注意がき」を無視しないでください。
J. C. HEPBURN, M.D., LL.D.
Z. P MARUYA & Co., LIMITED,
YOKOHAMA: KELLY & WALSH, LIMITED.
NEW YORK: STEIGER & Co.
LONDON: TRÜBNER & Co.
R. MEIKLEJOHN & Co.,
PRINTERS & STEREOTYPERS,
No. 26 Water Street,
During the fourteen years which have elapsed since the publication of the last edition of this Dictionary, the Author has kept it constantly before him, correcting errors, improving and enlarging the definitions, and adding new words and illustrations, according as his time and other important engagements allowed him. But owing to the amazing changes and rapid advancement of the Japanese in every department, he has found it difficult to keep pace with the corresponding advance of the language in the increase of its vocabulary. He has endeavored, however, to collect these words, examine, classify and define them. Many, no doubt, have escaped his notice. Still there is an addition of more than ten thousand words to the Japanese and English part. He might have increased this number by almost as many more, had he thought proper to insert the purely technical terms belonging to the various branches of medicine, chemistry, botany, etc., etc., each of which should have a separate work especially devoted to it. He had to draw a line somewhere, and has limited himself to such words only as are in popular and general use. Most of these words are of Chinese derivation.
He has also inserted all the archaic and now obsolete terms found in the Kojiki, Manyōshu, and the Monogataris which have come under his noise, hoping thereby to aid those who may desire to read these ancient books. To distinguish these words he has marked them with a dagger(†).
Though somewhat against his own judgment, but with an earnest desire to further the cause of the Romajikwai, he has altered to some extent the method of transliteration which he had adopted in the previous edition of this work, so as to conform to that which has been adopted by this society. These alterations are few and are fully explained in the Introduction.
The English and Japanese part he has also carefully revised, corrected and considerably enlarged.
With all his care and effort the author finds typographical errors have passed here and there undetected, especially among the Chinese characters. They are not many, however, and he comforts himself with the reflection that it is not human to be perfect, nor to produce a work in which a critical eye can detect no flaw.
The Author commits his work to the kind forbearance of the public. Advancing age admonishes him that this must be his last contribution to lexicography. He has done his best under the circumstances. He has laid the foundation upon which others may build a more complete and and finished structure; and he is thankful that so much of the work has been given him to do.
The Author cannot take his leave without thanking his many friends who have encouraged him and sympathized with him in his work; especially Rev. O. H. Gulick of Kōbe, and W. N. Whitney, M.D., Interpreter to the U. S. Legation , who have kindly rendered him no little aid. But above all others is he indebted to Mr. Takahashi Goro, whose assistance throughout has been invaluable.
J. C. H.
Yokohama, June, 1886.
CHINESE WRITTEN LANGUAGE.
There is but little doubt that, previous to the study of the Chinese written language, and the introduction of Chinese literature into Japan, the Japanese possessed no written language or characters of their own.
According to Japanese history, the first teacher of Chinese was Atogi (阿屠歧), a son of the King of Corea(転記者の注釈: <Korea>ではなく<Corea>となっている。), who came on an Embassy to the Court of Japan in the 15th year of the Emperor Ōjin, about a.d. 286. He remained but one year, and at his instigation, Wani (王仁) was invited to Japan from Corea to teach Chinese. He arrived the following year. About the nationality of Wani there is some dispute; but the best authorities regard him as a Corean, others as a Chinese from the kingdom of Go (呉), one of three states which, from a.d. 222 to 280, included in its territory part of Fokien and most of the eastern provinces of China. It was thus that what is called the Go-on (呉音) was brought to Japan.
From this time the Chinese classics, and literature in all its branches, gradually became the study of the higher classes, -- of the nobles, military class, priests, and physicians, -- and extended more or less even among the farmers and merchants. Education consisted in learning how to read and write Chinese. This has had more influence than all others in directing and shaping the development and civilization of a people, peculiarly impressible, inquisitive, and ready to imitate and adopt whatever may conduce to their own aggrandizements. Thus from China were derived the knowledge of agriculture, manufactures, the arts, religion, philosophy, ethics, medicine and science generally.
The Chinese written language, without affecting at all the grammatical structure of the native language, has been a vast treasury from which to draw and enrich it with words in every branch of knowledge. Perhaps the great advantage of having such materials at hand from which to form new combinations was never more apparent than at the present time, when the study of western science and institutions, necessitating a new and copious nomenclature and technology, has been entered upon with such avidity. The Chinese ideographs have been found equal to the need. With the aid of these, a new nomenclature in all departments of knowledge is rapidly forming, quite as expressive and appropriate as the words which have been introduced into the English language from the Greek and Latin, to which languages, in their influence upon the Anglo-Saxon and English mind and philosophy, the Chinese written language bears a wonderful resemblance.
Only the highest style and smallest part of Japanese literature is written in pure Chinese. The largest part, and that intended for the general reader, is written in a mixture of Chinese and Japanese Kana, called Kana-majiri, in which a large proportion of words, the agglutinating particles, and grammatical structure, are purely Japanese. Below this, there is yet a style of literature written in the Hira-kana, without any, or a very slight mixture of Chinese.
The Chinese spoken language has never been current in Japan. But in the language of the learned classes and officials, words derived from the Chinese abound; and from a false affectation of learning the preference is generally given to such words, even when, in their own more beautiful native tongue, synonymous words exist. The native Japanese language seems to be spoken with greater purity by the women than by any other class.
If the Japanese had confined themselves to one system of phonetics for the Chinese characters, the study of the language would have been much simplified, at least to the foreigner. But, besides the Go-on mentioned above, and after it had been current some 320 years, another system called the Kan-on (漢音) was introduced in the 15th year of the reign of the Emperor Izuiko, about a.d. 605, by some five Japanese students who had spent a year at (Chō-an) (長安), then the seat of government of the Zui dynasty, now Singan, the capital of the province of Shensi. The Kan-on has gradually supplanted the Go-on, being now, for the most part, used by the literary and official classes. The Go-on is still used by the Buddhist, and is the most current pronunciation of Chinese words in the common colloquial. Neither system, however, has been exclusively used to the rejection of the other; long custom and usage seems to have settled ad restricted their use to particular words. In the formation of new words and scientific terminology, the Kan-on is now exclusively used. There is still another and more recent system of sounds for the Chinese characters, called the Tō-on (唐音), which resembles the present Mandarin sounds; but this is little used.
The Chinese characters in their entirety were the first symbols employed by the Japanese in writing their native tongue. These characters were used phonetically, each standing for the sound of a Japanese syllable, sometimes for a word. In this way it happened that the Japanese letters, instead of an alphabetic, took a syllabic form. The most ancient books, as the Kojiki (古事記), which dates from a.d. 711, and the Manyōshu (転記者の注釈: Manyōshū ではなくて、Manyōshu となっている) (万葉集), some fifty years after, were written in this way.
The first effort to do away with these cumbersome characters, and simplify their letters, gave rise to the Kana, a contraction of Kari-na (假名), signifying borrowed names. The Kata-kana (片假字) (転記者の注釈: 片假名ではなく片假字となっている), or side letters, are the oldest and most simple. They are said to have been invented by Kibi Daishi, a man of high rank in the Court of the Emperor Kōjin, who died a.d. 776. They are derived from the Chinese characters, where, instead of the whole, only a part of the character is used; as, イ from 伊, ロ fro 呂, ホ from 保. Sometimes the whole character is used; as, チ from 干. But these characters being separated, and not admitting of being run into each other as a grass hand, they have been little used, except in dictionaries, books intended for the learned, or to spell foreign names.
The Hira-kana (平假字)(転記者の注釈: 平假名ではなく平假字となっている), or plain letters, are also Chinese characters written in a running or grass hand, and more or less contracted. Thus, ゆ is the grass hand of 由, あ of 安, を of 遠. They are said to have been invented by Kūhai(転記者の注釈: KūkaiではなくKūhaiとなっている); a Buddhist priest, better known by his posthumous name of Kōbōdaishi, who died in the 2nd year of the reign of the Emperor Jimmyo, a.d. 835. This man is also said to have arranged the syllables in their present order of i, ro, ha, forming them into a stanza of poetry.
If the Japanese had confined themselves to a certain number of fixed symbols to represent their syllables, the labor of acquiring a knowledge of their written language would have been comparatively easy; but having such a wide field in the Chinese ideographs from which to select, they have multiplied these symbols, making that which should be simple and plain, complex and confusing, to the great annoyance and trouble of all learners, and not unfrequently even perplexing themselves. A great change, however, in this respect has been produced by the use of movable metallic types in printing and the abandonment of the old method of printing on blocks. The forms of the Hiragana syllables have consequently been reduced to two or three varieties.
THE JAPANESE SYLLABARY.
The Japanese syllabary consists of seventy-two syllabic sounds, and including the final ン, of seventy-three. Among these there are several having the same sound; as, イ and 井, ヱ and エ, ヲ and オ, ジ and ヂ, ヅ and ズ. If these be deducted it leaves sixty-eight distinct sounds.
These are divided by the Japanese into 47 pure (Sei-on 清音) and 20 impure (Daku-on 濁音) syllables, not including the final ン. To express these syllables they employ 48 characters, represented in the following diagram, where the syllables are arranged in their proper order, beginning at the left and reading across the page:--
イ i ロ ro ハ ha ニ ni ホ ho ヘ he ト to チ chi リ ri ヌ nu ル ru ヲ wo ワ wa カ ka ヨ yo タ ta レ re ソ so ツ tsu 子 ne ナ na ラ ra ム mu ウ u 井 i ノ no オ o ク ku ヤ ya マ ma ケ ke フ fu コ ko エ e テ te ア a サ sa キ ki ユ yu メ me ミ mi シ shi ヱ ye ヒ hi モ mo セ se ス su ン n
The impure syllables are formed from the pure, by softening the initial consonant for the sake of easy pronunciation, or in writing Chinese sounds. In writing them they use the same characters, with two dots or a circle over the right shoulder, as seen in the following diagram:--
In books these marks to designate the impure sounds are often omitted; it being taken for granted that the reader knows for himself when syllables is to take this sounds.
Another arrangement of their syllables, which is more ancient than the i, ro, ha method, and to which the Japanese are very partial, is that according to the five vowels, called the Go-jū-on, or I-tsura no on, or the fifty sounds, as follows:--
ア a カ ka サ sa タ ta ナ na ハ ha マ ma ヤ ya ラ ra ワ wa イ i キ ki シ shi チ chi ニ ni ヒ hi ミ mi イ i リ ri 井 i ウ u ク ku ス su ツ tsu ヌ nu フ fu ム mu ユ yu ル ru ウ u エ e ケ ke セ se テ te 子 ne ヘ he メ me エ ye レ re ヱ ye オ o コ ko ソ so ト to ノ no ホ ho モ mo ヨ yo ロ ro ヲ wo
To complete this table the syllables イ, ヲ and ヱ have to be repeated.
In transliterating the Japanese sounds into the Roman letter, the following system has been adopted in this work:--
- has the sound of a in father, arm.
- has the sound of ey in they, prey.
- has the sound of i in machine, pique, or like the sound of e in mete.
- has the long sound of u in rule, tune, or oo in moon, excepting in the syllables tsu, zu, and su, when it has a close sound, resembling, as near as possible, the sound of u pronounced with the vocal organs fixed in the position they are in just after pronouncing the letter
- has the sound of o in no, so. The horizontal mark over ō and ū indicates merely that the sound of o and u is prolonged.
- has the sound of ai in aisle, or like eye.
- has the sound of ow in cow, how.
- is pronounced like ch in cheek, cheap.
- is pronounced like sh in shall, ship shop.
- has a close resemblance to the sound of the English f, but differs from it, in that the lower lip does not touch the upper teeth; the sound is made by blowing fu softly through the lips nearly closed, resembling the sound of wh in who: fu is an aspirate, and might, for the sake of uniformity, be written hu.
- in the Tōkyō dialect has the soft sound of ng, but in Kyōto, Nagasaki, and the southern provinces it has the hard sound of g in go, gain.
- in ra, re, ro, ru, has the sound of the English r, but in ri is pronounced more like d. But this is not invariable, as many natives give it the common r sound.
- in Kyōto, Nagasaki, and the southern provinces is pronounced she, and ze like je. The final
n, when at the end of a word, has always the sound of ng; as, mon=mong, san=sang, min=ming, but in the body of a word, when followed by a syllable beginning with
p, it is pronounced like m, as, ban-min=bamming, mon-ban=mombang; shin-pai=shimpai. Before the other consonants it has the sound of n; as, an-nai, bandai, hanjō.
The sounds of the other consonants, viz., b, d, h, j, k, m, n, p, s, t, w, y and z, do not differ from their common English sounds.
THE SYLLABLES IN COMBINATION.
The syllables commencing with the soft aspirates h and f, and y, when preceded by another syllable, for the most part lose their consonants, and their vowels combine with the vowel of the preceding syllable, sometimes forming a diphthong; as, a-hi becomes ai, a-fu becomes au or ō; sometimes lengthening or reduplicating the sound of the first vowel; as, nu-fu becomes nū, to-ho becomes tō, i-hi becomes ii, yo-fu becomes yō, ho-ho becomes ō (転記者の注釈: hō ではなく ō になっている).
Sometimes the consonant of the first syllable and the vowel of the second form a a single syllable, the vowel of the first and the consonant of the second being elided. This is especially the case in writing the sounds of Chinese words; as, chi-ya becomes cha; shiya, sha; chiyo, cho; shiyo, sho; jiyo, jo; kuwo, kō; chi-ya-u becomes chō; shiyau, shō; shi-yo-u, shō. Sometimes an entirely new sound is produced; as, te-u becomes chō; he-u, hyō; de-fu, jō; se-fu, shō.
As in this Dictionary the words are arranged according to their sounds, and not according to the Japanese spelling with the Kana, the following table will be found useful to those who may wish to consult it, and who may have the Kana only, without the voice of the living teacher, to direct them to proper sound.
イフiu or yū
アウō or au
アフō or au
The system of orthography adopted in the previous edition of this work has been modified in a few particulars so as to conform to that recommended by the Romajikwai. Thus the y is omitted before e, and words which in the former edition began with y, in this begin with e, excepting the words yen(dollar), and ye, (to, towards). The y is also omitted in the body of purely Japanese words; and such words as were formerly written hayeru, miyeru, iye, yuye, are now written haeru, mieru, ie, yue. But in words derived from the Chinese, where the second syllable commences with
ヱ, the y is still retained, as being preferable to the hyphen; thus ri-en, san-etsu, sho-en, are written riyen, sanyetsu, shoyen.
Dzu is now written zu, and Chinese words formerly written kiya, kiyo, kiu, kuwa, kuwai, are now written kya, kyo, kyū, kwa, kwai.
The syllable tsu (
ツ), when preceding the strong consonants k, s, p, and t, is elided, and the consonant of the syllable following it doubled as batsu-kun becomes bakkun; matsu-sugu becomes massugu, tetsu pō, teppō, matsu-taku, mattaku.
ク), when followed by a syllable beginning with k, loses its vowel; as baku-ka becomes bakka; bikkuko, bikko, koku-ka, kokka.
The vowels i and u are often feebly sounded; as, hito is pronounced h'to; shichi, sh'chi; shita, sh'ta; shite, sh'te, futatsu, f'tatsu, futo f'to, etc.
The language of Kyōto, the ancient capital of the country, and until the restoration the residence of the Imperial Court and of literary men, has been considered the standard and of highest authority; but since the restoration and the removal of the capital to Tōkyō, the dialect of the latter has the precedence. Dialectical differences are numerous, and provincialisms and vulgarisms abound. The dialect of Satsuma is said to be so different as not to be intelligible in other parts of the country. This subject, however, has not yet been fully investigated. A few of these differences may here be mentioned.
In Tōkyō kwa is pronounced ka; kwan, kan; gwai, gai, as, gun-kwan is pronounced gunkan; kenkwa, kenka; kwaji, kaji; gwai-koku, gaikoku. Yui is frequently changed to i. as, yuku into iku, yuki into iki, yugamu into igamu, juku into jiku, isshu into isshi, shuku into shiku.
Hi is pronounced shi. as hibachi is pronounced shibachi; hi-no-ki, shi-no-ki, etc.
Na is changed into ne; as, nai into nei, shiranai into shiranei, sō de nai into sō de nei.
The hard g sound is softened into ng. as, kago is pronounced ka-ngo; megane, me-ngane; sugiru, su-ngiru, ne ga takai, ne nga takai, etc.
In the province of Echigo hi is pronounced fu, and i is changed into e. as, for hibachi, they say fubachi, for hiku, fuku, for hikari, fukari; for itazura, etazura.
In Izumo the syllables ha, hi, fu, he, ho are pronounced fuwa, fui, fū, fuo: thus, ham-bun is pronounced fuambun.
In Kazusa, ka, ki, ku, ke, ko, are changed into wa, i, u, e, o.
Besides the above mentioned, many other differences exist; but one conversant with the Tōkyō dialect will have no difficulty in being understood in any part of the country, amongst the educated classes.
The accent in Japanese words is made by a slight elevation of the tone upon the accented syllable; as a general rule, in words of two syllables it falls on the first; in words of three syllables on the penult; and in words of four syllables on the anti-penult. But the accent always falls upon the syllable that has a double or prolonged vowel sound; as, ikō, yosasō, ii-kakeru, ii-tukeru, yūmeshi. In words of two and like syllables, the accent varies; thus ha'na, a flower, has the accent on the first syllable; and in hana', the nose, it falls upon the last. In hashi', a bridge, the accent is on the final syllable; and in ha'shi, chop-sticks, it falls upon the first. No effort has been made to mark these accents.
Among the difficulties which a foreigner has to meet in reading Japanese books, not the least are the want of proper punctuation, the running of words into each other, and the absence of any marks to distinguish proper names. Punctuation marks are sometimes used; but, excepting the large circle
○and the character
ー, to separate paragraphs, they only serve to perplex the learner. The marks commonly used are
。; these often separate a noun in the possessive case from the thing possessed, the object of a adverb from the verb, an attributive adjective from the noun, and an adverb from the word it qualifies.
To aid the learner in this matter it should be kept in mind that, a sentence never ends in a verb ending with te, do, domo, ba; or in the root form of a verb, in the attributive adjective in ki, or in an adverbial ending; though these may often be equivalent to a comma or a semicolon in English.
The root form of the verb, and the adverbial adjective ending ku, always mark a continuation of the sentence.
A sentence ends with the adjective or final form of the verb, with the predicative adjective endings in shi, with the preterite verb endings in ta, nu, shi, ki, or with the words nari, bashi (転記者の注釈: beshi の誤植か), ari, tari, keri.
There is no Article in the Japanese language.
The Noun is not subject to any changes in its syllables to designate either case, gender, or number.
The case or relation of the noun to the other words of a sentence is generally designated by a particle or post-position placed after it; thus, the
- Nominative or subjective by wa or ga.
- Hito wa, a man.
- Genitive by no or ga.
- Hito no, of a man.
- Dative by ni or ye.
- Hito ni, to a man.
- Accusative or objective by wo.
- Hito wo, a man.
- Vocative by yo, ya, kana.
- Hito yo, man; or, oh, man!
- Ablative by kara, yori, de, wo motte, ni, nite.*
- Hito de, by a man
* For a more particular illustration of these particles, as well as all the words used in this grammar, the reader is referred to the Dictionary.
The plural is only designated when it is emphatic, or refers to a class; for this purpose various words and forms are employed. For persons, the words domo, tachi, kata, ra, nado, nazo, shu, tō, following; or by duplicating the word, as, ware-ware, hito-bito, shimo-jimo, shita-jita, reki-reki, hi-bi, tokoro-dokoro, sho-sho, etc.; or for persons or things by the words, ban, kyaku, su, sho, preceding the words.
Gender is designated by a different word; as, otoko, onnna, nan, nyo; or in the case of animals and birds by prefixing the particles, me and o, contractions of mesu, osu, as, me-ushi, a cow; o-ushi, a bull; me-uma (pron. mem-ma) a mare; o-uma (pron. omma) a stallion.
Diminutives are formed are formed by prefixing ko, a child, or little; as, ko-bune, a little boat; ko-ushi, a calf; ko-uma, a colt; ko-bashi, a little bridge; ko-ishi, a pebble; ko-yama, a hill.
Ō, a contraction of ōkii, great, big, is prefixed to nouns as an amplifying particle; as ō-yama, a big mountain; ō-kaze, a high wind; ō-bune, a large ship; ō-nami, high waves; ō-ame, a heavy rain; ō-ishi, a large stone.
Nouns expressing abstract qualities are formed by suffixing the particle sa to the root of the adjective; as, shiro-sa, the whiteness; kuro-sa, the blackness; taka-sa, the height; omo-sa, the weight; kurushi-sa, the painfulness. Sometimes by the use of koto as, yuki no shiroi koto, the whiteness of the snow; umi no fukai koto, the depth of the sea; or by the attributive form of the adjective only.
The root form of verbs are also nouns; as, yorokobi, joy; ikari, anger; urami, enmity; nikumi, hatred; nokori, the remainder; amari, the surplus.
The adjective has no declension, or undergoes no change to to express either case, number, gender, or comparison. To the root of the adjective the syllables i, ki, ku, shi are affixed, in order to designate its relations or character in a sentence. The syllable ki, or i, -- which is but a contraction of ki, -- affixed to the root of the adjective designates the attributive form, as : (以下省略)
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