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以下は、「J. C. HEPBURN(著). A JAPANESE AND ENGLISH DICTIONARY; WITH AN ENGLISH AND JAPANESE INDEX(和英語林集成). SHANGHAI, AMERICAN PRESBYTERIAN MISSION PRESS, 1867年. (en)」からの引用です。最後の「注意がき」を無視しないでください。
慶応丁卯新鐫 (転記者注: この部分、原文の書字方向はみぎからひだり)
美国 平文先生編譯 和英語林集成 一千八百六十七年 日本横浜梓行
JAPANESE AND ENGLISH
ENGLISH AND JAPANESE
J. C. HEPBURN, A.M., M.D.
AMERICAN PRESBYTERIAN MISSION PRESS.
In introducing this Dictionary to the public the author feels no small degree of diffidence. Nothing but the great need of such a work, felt by all foreigners in Japan, and the constant demand upon those who were making the study of the language their special business to share their acquisitions with others, could have induced him to issue it at this stage of his acquaintance with the language. The conviction that it is a first step in the right direction, and that, with all its deficiencies, it will prove of some use, could alone have made him consent to its publication.
In compiling this work the author has labored under the very great difficulty of having had little to assist him from the works of predecessors in the same field. The only works of the kind within his reach were the small vocabulary of Dr. Medhurst published in Batavia in 1830; and the Japanese and Portuguese Dictionary published by the Jesuit missionaries in 1603. His principal dependence, however, has been upon the living teacher, so that he feels himself alone responsible for every thing in the work.
There are over 20,000 Japanese words defined in the dictionary. This number might have been considerably increased, if all the compound words of which the language is capable, and all the obsolete words had been inserted. Those here published have been collected, for the most part, in the course of his own reading, or heard in use among the people. A large number of the words are of Chinese origin, and used mainly in books and epistolary writings, and have a very limited range of meaning. The most common words, whether native or Chinese, he has endeavored to illustrate, as much as possible, with examples; some of them extracted from books, but generally with colloquial phrases.
He might have made it a less pretentious volume, confining himself to only such words as are in common use; but his desire has been to present the whole language to the eye of the scholar arranged in proper order; and though he may not have exhausted the meaning of the words, he has endeavored to make as near an approximation to it as possible.
To render the work more complete he has added the Japanese Kana, and Chinese characters. The spelling with the Kana is accorging to the best native authority. The Chinese characters attached to the native words are those commonly used as their equivalents.
It has also been attempted to designate the part of speech to which each word belongs. This with the native words is not a matter of much difficulty, but with the Chinese is impossible in most cases, as the same word may be viewed as a noun, verb, or adjective, according to it various relations.
The introduction of the synonymous words will also be found useful. This branch has been more fully carried out in the second part, or Index.
In Romanizing the words, the effort has been in every case to express the sound as pronounced by the most cultivated natives; and the system of orthography, with a few variations, is that generally adopted by the students of the language in Japan.
The printing has been accomplished under many difficulties, especially from the want of accented vowels and a proper supply of capital letters which could not be procured in Shanghai, and had to be manufactured under many disadvantages. This will account for the want of uniformity and irregularity observable.
Notwithstanding every care, not a few typographical errors are observed; but as most of them are unimportant and a little attention will enable the reader to rectify them for himself, it is no thought necessary to publish a list of errata.
With these apologies and explanations, the author commits this work, the fruit of nearly eight years of unremitting labor, to the kind indulgence of those who are making the language their study, and if he can in this way, lend them a helping hand out of some of the difficulties which he had so often to encounter alone, he will feel that his labor has no been in vain.
J. C. H.
Shanghai, May, 1867.
a has the sound of a in father.
e has the sound of e in they, prey.
i has the sound of i in machine.
o has the sound of o in no, so.
u has the sound of u in rule, moon.
The horizontal mark over the vowels; as, ā, ī, ō, ū, indicates merely that the sound is prolonged.
ai has the sound of ai in aisle or eye.
au has the sound of ow in cow, how.
ch has the sound of ch in church.
sh has the sound of sh in shall, ship.
a, when followed by a syllable commencing with y, has the sound of ai, or i in thine; as, hayaku, is pronounced, haiyaku; ayamachi, aiyamachi.
f, has a close resemblance to the sound of the English, f; but differs from it in that the teeth do not touch the lip, but the sound is made by blowing fu, softly through the lips when nearly closed, something like the wh sound in who, or why.
g, in the Yedo dialect has the soft sound of ng; but in Nagasaki, Kiyoto, and the southern departments it is pronounced hard; as in go, gain.
r, in ra, re, ro, ru, has the sound of the English, r; but ri, it is pronounced more like d. But this is not invariable as many natives give it the common r sound.
The vowel sound in sz, tsz, and dz, is the same. It has no equivalent in English, but as near as possible to the sound expressed by the letters. Se in Kiyoto, Nagasaki and the southern departments is pronounced, she; and ze, like je.
The final n (ン), when at the end of a word has always the sound of ng; as, mon = mong, san = sang, shin = shing; but in the body of a word, when followed by a syllable beginning with b, m, or p, it is pronounced like m; as, ban-min = bamming, mon-ban = mombang, shin-pai = shimpai. Before the other consonants it has the sound of n; as, an-nai, an-raku, ban-dai.
The sounds of the other consonants, viz. b d h j k m n p s t w y z, do not differ from their common English sounds.
THE WRITTEN CHARACTER OR KANA.
The native language of the Japanese seems not to have been redueed*1 to writing before the introduction of the Chinese characters. Ancient written characters are spoken of, and their forms and sounds even given, but it is doubtful whether they were used. The only vestiges said to be still remaining are the inscriptions upon two stone tablets, preserved and regarded with superstitious veneration, one in a Sintoo temple in Miwa of the department of Yamato; the other in a temple in Kidziki in the department of Idzmo.
*1 転記者の注釈: <redueed>は<reduced>の誤植か。
The most ancient writings in the native language still extant are the Kojiki (古事記), a history of Japan from the earliest ages to the time when it was written about A.D.711; and the Manyōshu (万葉集), a collection of native poetry made some fifty years later. In both of these works the square and unabbreviated form (Kaisho) of the Chinese characters is used phonetically to represent the sounds of the Japanese syllables. These characters were called Kari-na, (仮字), or borrowed names, contracted afterwards into Kana (see 4 and 5 of the table). These characters more or less abbreviated and simplified in form, are called Hira-kana (3 of the table), or plain letters, and are still the common symbols used in writing the native language.
The Katakana, (片仮名), or side letters, (1 of the table) are also derived from the Chinese characters, where instead of taking the whole, only a part of the character is used. These are more ancient than the Hirakana but have been little used except in Dictionaries, books intended for the learned, or to spell foreign names.
There is still another form used, called the I-ro-ha kana, said to have been invented by Kūkai, or Kōbōdaishi, a Buddhist priest and founder of the Shingonshu sect, who died in A.D.835. This form of Kana was devised by its author in order to assimilate the letters, as much as possible, to the Bonji, or characters used in the sacred books of the Buddhists.
The Japanese syllabary consists of seventy-two syllables, as seen in the table; they are generally arranged according to the five vowel sounds; as follows :--
aア kaカ saサ taタ naナ haハ maマ yaヤ raラ waワ gaガ zaザ daダ baバ paパ iイ kiキ shiシ chiチ niニ hiヒ miミ i イ riリ i 井 giギ jiジ jiヂ biビ piピ uウ kuク suス tszツ nuヌ fuフ muム yuユ ruル u ウ guグ dzズ dzヅ buブ puプ eエ keケ seセ teテ ne子 heヘ meメ yeエ reレ yeヱ geゲ zeゼ deデ beベ peペ oオ koコ soソ toト noノ hoホ moモ yoヨ roロ woヲ goゴ zoゾ doド boボ poポ
To complete this table the syllables, イ ウ and エ have to be repeated. There are also amongst them several syllables, as, ヱ and エ, イ and 井, ヲ and オ, ヂ and ジ, and ヅ and ズ, which are said to have represented different sounds in ancient times; but at the present time they can no longer be distinguished; in correct spelling, however, care must be taken that they be not written indiscriminately; there is a rule, established by ancient usage, to be observed in their use.
THE SYLLABLES IN COMBINATION.
The syllables commencing with the soft asperates*2, h and f, and y, for the most part, loose their consonants, and their vowels combine with the vowel of the preceeding*3 syllable; sometimes forming a diphthong; as, a-hi, ai; afu, au, or ō; sometimes lengthening the sound of the first vowel; as, nu-fu, nū; to-ho, tō; i-hi, ī; yo-fu, yō; ho-ho, ō*4.
*2 転記者の注釈: <asperates>は<aspirate>の誤植か。
*3 転記者の注釈: <preceeding>は<preceding>の誤植か。
*4 転記者の注釈: <ō>は<hō>の誤植か。
Sometimes with the consonant of the first and the vowel of the second forming a new syllable, epecially*5 in writing the sounds of Chinese words; as, chi-ya, cha; shi-ya, sha; chi-yo, cho; shi-yo, sho; ji-yo, jo; or by still greater changes; as, chi-ya-u, chō; shi-ya-u, shō; shi-yo-u, shō; or by forming an entirely new sound; as t-eu*6, chō; he-u, hiyō; de-fu, jō; se-fu, shō.
*5 転記者の注釈: <epecially>は<especially>の誤植か。
*6 転記者の注釈: <t-eu>は<te-u>の誤植か。
In the following table all these changes are given in regular order, for the sake of those who may wish to consult this dictionary, and who may have the Kana only without the voice of the living teacher to direct them to the proper sound.
アウō or au
アフō or au
*7 転記者の注釈: <ko>は<kō>の誤植か。
In the system of orthography adopted in this work, the y has been retained before the vowels a and o whenever possible, in order to separate the vowels, render the syllables more distinct, and follow the kana.
The syllables tsz, (ツ) when preceeding*8 the strong consonant, k, s, p, and t, is elided, and the consonant of the following syllable doubled; as batsz-kun becomes bakkun; matsz-szgu becomes masszgu; tetszpō, teppō; matsz-taku, mattaku.
*8 転記者の注釈: <preceeding>は<preceding>の誤植か。
Ku, (ク) when following by a syllable beginning with k looses its vowel; as, baku-ka, bakka; biku-ko, bikko; koku-ka, kokka.
The sound of the vowel i, is often elided; as in h'to, sh'chi, sh'ta, sh'te, ch'sha.
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